Why polio has reemerged

Why polio has reemerged: In 1952, the United States experienced its largest outbreak of polio with about 20,000 cases.

The availability of the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in 1955 eradicated the disease in the U.S.

A few weeks ago, however, the New York State Department of Health alerted community members that a person in Rockland County tested positive for polio.

On August 12, health officials also reported finding evidence of poliovirus in New York City’s wastewater samples.

United Kingdom health officials recently announced the discovery of the poliovirus in two areas of London.

Many people now have questions on how this might affect the health of everyone in the U.S. Here are some things you need to know, courtesy of medical experts.

Polio is back on the radar of Canadian health officials. Here’s why

In the 1950s, the United States experienced a large outbreak of poliomyelitis (polio) — a viral infection causing paralysis, breathing issues, and possibly death. At the peak of the outbreak in 1952, there was about 20,000 casesTrusted Source of polio in the country.

In 1955, the first polio vaccine rushed Source — known as the trivalent inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) — became available. Widespread vaccination helped lower the number of polio cases trusted Source each year in the U.S. to less than 100 in the 1960s and less than 10 in the 1970s.

All U.S. states currently require children to receive polio vaccinations to attend elementary school and child care.

Since 1979Trusted Source, no cases of polio have reportedly originated in the U.S., although some cases have occasionally occurred due to the virus spreading through international travel.

Polio detected in NYC wastewater, health officials say

First polio case in the U.S. in almost a decade

On July 21, 2022, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) and Rockland County Department of Health alerted the public to a case of polio in an adult Rockland County resident, making it the first U.S. polio case since 2013.

According to NYSDOH health officials and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), evidence suggests the Rockland County resident contracted polio from someone who had received oral polio vaccine (OPV)Trusted Source — a live version of the polio vaccine no longer administeredTrusted Source in the U.S.

Then on August 4, 2022, NYSDOH reported researchers had found wastewater samples positive for the polio virus genetically linked to the Rockland County resident diagnosed with polio.

According to NYSDOH, as of August 5, 2022, the CDC confirmed the presence of the polio virus in 11 wastewater samples. Officials collected six samples in Rockland County in June and July, and five samples in July from neighboring Orange County, NY.

Bill Gates, whose foundation funds polio vaccines, warns that the disease’s reemergence in New York is a threat to us all

Is polio occurring in other countries?

On August 10, 2022, the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) issued a statement offering all children between the ages of 1 and 9 in London a dose of polio vaccine.

This follows an earlier report of type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus found in sewage samples from north and east London.

The UKHSA is reportedly working with health officials in New York and Israel, as well as the World Health Organization (WHO), to investigate any relationship between these recent polio detections.

Earlier this year, officials in Israel discovered cases of polio in Jerusalem and other cities.

With these recent findings, many people may worry about a polio outbreak in the U.S. Can you get polio if you are vaccinated? And how can people protect themselves from infection?

Medical News Today recently spoke with medical experts, as well as the NYSDOH, to get some answers to these questions.

UK’s urgent polio vaccine rollout for children in London ‘a wake-up call’ as more virus traces found

Should we worry about a polio outbreak in the U.S.?

Dr. Marny Eulberg is a family physician and board member of Post-Polio Health International. A polio survivor, since 1985 Dr. Eulberg has run a polio clinic, seeing over 1,500 polio survivors. She told MNT that polio anywhere in the world is a potential threat to anyone who has not been fully vaccinated against it.

“The case in New York demonstrates that with our mobile societies polio can be imported into parts of the world that have not seen polio for decades,” she explained.

“Based on earlier polio outbreaks, New Yorkers should know that for every one case of paralytic polio observed, there may be hundreds of other people infected,” New York State Health Commissioner Dr. Mary T. Bassett states.

“Coupled with the latest wastewater findings, the Department is treating the single case of polio as just the tip of the iceberg of much greater potential spread,” she adds.

A Call for Action: The Triple Threat of Polio, Monkeypox, and SARS-CoV-2

“As we learn more, what we do know is clear: The danger of polio is present in New York today,” Dr. Bassett continues. “We must meet this moment by ensuring that adults, including pregnant people, and young children by 2 months of age are up to date with their immunizationTrusted Source — the safe protection against this debilitating virus that every New Yorker needs.”

“We are now seeing polio outbreaks in specific communities and among certain individuals who, for some reason or other, are not vaccinated against polio,” said Dr. Waleed Javaid, hospital epidemiologist, and director of infection prevention and control at Mount Sinai New York. “Those individuals and communities are at a higher risk of contracting the disease.”

“We are seeing this now because not everyone is vaccinated against polio,” Dr. Eulberg added.

Polio: The Disease that Reemerged after Six Years in Ethiopia

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov › articles › PMC8512932

by ST Tseha · 2021 · Cited by 1 — Today, re-emergence of polio has occurred in Ethiopia after six years after the country documented zero polio cases since 2014(5). According to WHO, cVDPV2 was 

‎Abstract · ‎Introduction · ‎Epidemiology of Polio · ‎Clinical Features and

Polio is re-emerging in areas previously considered polio free

https://www.bmj.com › content › bmj

by P Moszynski · 2013 · Cited by 2 — Concern is mounting that the global drive to eradicate polio is being undermined by security problems and access constraints that have led 

Why Hasn’t the World Eradicated Polio?

https://www.cfr.org › backgrounder › why-hasnt-world

How successful have eradication efforts been? — In 2021, the disease reemerged in Malawi, not long after Africa had been declared polio-free. The following 

The recent outbreaks and reemergence of poliovirus in war 

https://www.sciencedirect.com › science › article › pii

by L Akil · 2016 · Cited by 58 — Wars and conflict have resulted in the reemergence of polio in countries that were polio-free for decades, and may contribute to the spread of the virus to 

Global Public Health Threats: 7. Why is polio still a threat?

https://www.greenfacts.org › 7-polio-vaccination

Although the world was hoping to eradicate polio through vaccination programmes, the disease has re-emerged because of inadequate control.

Polio Eradication Report: ‘2020 Has Been A Terrible Year’ – NPR

https://www.npr.org › goatsandsoda › 2020/10/30 › the-c

30-Oct-2020 — The vaccine can be shed through feces. In places with poor sanitation, the vaccine can be spread through wastewater.

Polio eradication – Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Polio_eradication

The reemergence of polio led to stepped up vaccination campaigns. In the city of Darfur, 78,654 children were immunized and 20,432 more in southern Sudan ( 

Reemergence of Recombinant Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus 

https://academic.oup.com › jid › article

by M Rakoto-Andrianarivelo · 2008 · Cited by 93 — Our findings have important implications for the future of the polio eradication program and associated viral surveillance. In both cases, these outbreaks 

Polio immunisation campaign begins in four countries after 

https://www.unicef.org › press-releases › polio-immunis

People most commonly contract polio when they drink water that is contaminated with the faeces of someone who carries the virus. Children under the age of five 

Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus: a menace to the end 

https://globaizationandhealth.biomedcentral.com › artic

by LC Ming · 2020 · Cited by 7 — cVDPV remains a menace to the end game of polio eradication as it is one of the main causes of re-emerging polio apart from vaccination 

Poliomyelitis – WHO | World Health Organization

https://www.who.int › Newsroom › Fact sheets › Detail

04-Jul-2022 — Endemic transmission of wild poliovirus is continuing in areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Failure to stop polio in these last remaining areas 

Missing: reemerged ‎| Must include: reemerged

Polio outbreak in Malaysia – WHO | World Health Organization

https://www.who.int Outbreaks and emergencies

On 8 December 2019, the Ministry of Health of Malaysia announced the country’s first case of polio since 1992. Testing has confirmed that the virus is 

Polio eradication, cessation of vaccination and re-emergence

https://www.nature.com review articles

by PD Minor · 2004 · Cited by 88 — It is possible that poliovirus could re-emerge after it has been eradicated either because wild-type strains might persist undetected or 

The Recent Outbreaks and Reemergence of Polio-Virus in

https://www.researchgate.net › publication › 304676628

05-Jul-2022 — Conclusion: Polio was shown to be high in areas with increased conflict and instability. Displaced populations living in hard-to-reach areas may 

Malawi polio case raises concerns the virus could reemerge in 

https://www.statnews.com › 2022/02/22 › malawi-polio

22-Feb-2022 — A newly discovered case of wild polio in Malawi has raised the possibility that a virus that had been driven out of the African continent 

Bill Gates calls polio ‘a threat to us all’ after disease reemerges 

https://fortune.com › 2022/08/09 › bill-gates-foundatio

4 days ago — A once-eradicated disease has reemerged in New York, and it’s spooking health officials and billionaire philanthropist Bill Gates.

Bill Gates, whose foundation funds polio vaccines, warns that 

https://finance.yahoo.com › news › bill-gates-whose-fo

4 days ago — A once-eradicated disease has reemerged in New York, and it’s spooking health officials and billionaire philanthropist Bill Gates.

UK launches urgent polio vaccine rollout for London children 

https://www.cnbc.com › 2022/08/11 › uk-launches-urg

2 days ago — Britain is rolling out urgent polio vaccinations for all London-based children under 10 as a reemergence of the virus across the U.K., U.S. and

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